the Necessity of turning cutters appeared, we can say, with the advent of the first machine tools for machining. Here he was securely fastened, the cutter and the workpiece was set in motion by using animals and steam engines.
Since then, much time has passed, however, the principle of this treatment is preserved. Currently this is done on lathes, planers, slotting machines of various designs. That they are treated shafts, without which we could not have created all types of machines. For such machines lathe cutter is a major component of their accessories.
What is the cutter lathe
This tool is a metal rod, made in the form of a parallelepiped. Is designed for machining of bodies of revolution. Its peculiarity is that it is still attached to the machine, and the movement provides a platform with the workpiece. Because of this, the instrument as a whole can withstand high loads, even when using an ordinary tool or high speed steels. On the other hand, this imposes some restrictions to the shape of the workpiece. It is necessary to calculate its geometrical parameters when creating the technology so that it was not destroyed.
the Cutter consists of a cutting part and shank. The rectangular shank is usually performed, which allows it more securely fix both the horizontal vertical directions. This can be used in various devices, for example, rectangular pins.
the cutting to distinguish between the front and rear corners, which together form a wedge angle. Front angle selected in the range from 5 to 10° hard materials and for soft 10 to 25°. We must distinguish considered from the angle. The second can be 25, 30 or 45 degrees.
As a rule, from the technological considerations for softer materials take more acute angles of taper, and for solid – angles close to 90°. For example, for iron the recommended sharpening angle is 81°, for steel — 68°, and for aluminum it is already equal to 48°.
the Cutting part may be solid or composed of elements. Known solutions, which use plates of solid alloys. By way of attaching they may be brazed or removable.
processing Technology is quite simple. When the pressure of the cutter on the surface of the rotating workpiece is a smooth removal of the metal layer. At the same time trying to ensure that its thickness was minimal. To increase the speed of ejection of the chip front surface is arcuate with a flat plot.
is Made mainly from carbon, alloy and high speed steel.
Cutter carbon alloy is used in the processing of soft materials. Provide good surface finish to cutting speed 12 m/min. while the doped alloys allow to increase this figure to 15 m/min
the Emergence of high-speed steels, for example, R6M5, R18, allowed us to create tools that can withstand processing at speeds 2-3 times higher.
Also, to increase speed, service life and strength characteristics, depending on the workpiece material used in hard alloys of the tungsten compounds, tantalum, cobalt, titanium. The tool made of such a material is able to withstand heavy loads.
They are used for machining in the following areas:
— mechanical engineering;
— electrical engineering industry;
— Avia-space industry;
— furniture and other manufacturing;
They can be used for roughing, semi-finishing and finish machining of materials such as steel, cast iron, nonferrous metals, hard rubber, wood. Cutters with brazed plates are used for turning forms, which require a great accuracy. This, for example, threading.