wood is one of the oldest building materials. Processing was carried out first only manual methods. For example, in the manufacture of the popular material — boards were used wedges. They were also obtained by slicing the trunk of the tree from two sides. However, a large part of the procurement was spent on waste and were thrown out. To increase the yield per unit of the workpiece, but also to meet the growing requirements for materials made of wood was proposed machines.
it Quickly became clear that the use of instruments in combination with mechanized labor can significantly increase the productivity and to get a quite pleasant appearance of the product.
He refers to stationary equipment that is designed for processing wood and its derivatives. Consists of such parts as the frame, motor, rollers, guides and locking elements for mounting the workpiece.
Engine, usually electric. Depending on the scale of production used three-phase asynchronous motors of different power.
Torque transmitted from the engine through the shaft. At its end has a spindle. The shaft itself is based on conventional bearings.
Frame or frame is made with welding between profiles of different shapes (angles, channels, etc.). It needs to be designed to withstand the weight of the other components together with the workpiece. And be sure the calculation is made on the resistance to vibration that inevitably arise in the operation of the machine, as well as the shock dynamic loads. With a constructive hand in its development must be capable of mounting holders, and guides.
the Right choice of the guide and locking elements is a key factor which affects the machining accuracy.
spindle mounted tool, which is an important link in the operation of the machine, although he is not part of it. Such known types of turning tools, circular and band saws, routers, drills and more.
processing Technology is as follows. Itself the workpiece on the table is fixed with a fixture. Upon contact of the rotating tool with the surface of the wood, the last is removal of the chips with the subsequent formation of the desired shape of the recess.
There are two embodiments of connection of the motor with the spindle (pulley, cartridge) that can be attached tool. In the first, there is a rigid mechanical connection. Here the shaft is mounted directly to the spindle. In another embodiment, the transmission is through the transmission, for example, gears or belts. Inevitably the loss of torque, but also less risk of damage to the engine when it is jamming.
there are two Possible embodiment of the process the processing of the machine. In the first moving platform with the tool. Second, the movement commits itself to the workpiece. This is all done by the operator by using devices, such as the handle or a special device with an electric motor.
On the machine may be provided with rulers or levels to facilitate the process. Some models may be equipped with a vacuum cleaner to remove swarf from the cutting area.
Advantages and scope of use of woodworking machines
They are applied in the following spheres of activity:
— the furniture industry;
— production of Souvenirs.
these machines have the following advantages relative to manual processing methods:
— large values of impact loads due to the use of electric motors. This allows you to work with a pretty massive structure of wood;
— precise treatment through the use of holders and rails;
— safety. The operator interaction with the machine is ensured through actions that relate mainly to the consolidation of the workpiece and tool on the machine, as well as to ensure the movement of the model;
— to automate processing. Very useful when organizing large amounts of production when the process occurs according to a predetermined program or technological cycle.
Principal woodworking machines
depending on the type of work performed, they are divided into the following types:
When the machine is running only one of the above, it is called special. Known machines that can do several jobs. They are called universal.
There are versions of the machines with computer control. They are especially indispensable for accurate treatment for a given program, as well as in the production of Souvenirs, promotional products.
Homemade woodworking machines — instructions for making
Due to the fact that wood is a plastic material, machines for woodworking not increased demands. Therefore, it can be completely assembled by hand. Self-Assembly will require housing, motor, shaft with the cartridge.