moulding machines, shaped or milling machines, which can be attributed to the slotting machines are primarily used to complete the striking design elements and detail of certain compounds in wood products.
essentially, the machine is a cutting unit, which processes the workpiece through the slot in the desktop rotates with high speed by vertically disposed spindle or shaft. Adjustable stops send detail in its submission for the cutting authority. Specialized slotting machine milling type are made for industrial purposes and due to their prices and a functionality rarely purchased a woodworking Amateur. On the other hand, part of the complex universal machine moulding machines, or hand routers is often very useful integral part of the home workshop.
the features of machine tools of this type the Spindle
Spindle drive belt rotates at a speed of from 4000 to 8000 rpm On some universal machines the speed can be set by choice. Currently, most manufacturers work according to international standards, the size of the spindle, so the spindle usually has a diameter of 30 mm. Therefore, it is possible to use cutting heads any firms adhering to international camp that, if not exceed maximum allowable speeds. Usually such information is given on the most cutting block.
Method of installation of the cutting head varies from model to model, so it is important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions in this regard. In principle, the first spindle is fixed in a certain position of the steel pin, on which a cutting head is pushed. Installed on top of the separation ring or the adjusting washer, and the cutter unit is fixed lingering nut or screw. After that, the retaining pin is removed. Spindle height is adjustable to position the cutters relative to the workpiece.
the Pressure protection device
Spindle and cutting head are closed by fencing and various stops rulers except those parts that are directly in this operation involved in the processing of the workpiece. The metal casing covers the back of the spindle, and adjustable horizontal and vertical clamping fence tightly pressed against the item to the focus and the desktop.
Guide the focus, or the line Guide support consists of two parts between which the working cutting edges of the head. Each half is adjustable to provide the necessary space for the cutting element when the decorative element, which occupies only a part of the edge, the two halves of the focus should be on one line. When processing the entire surface of the edge of the outlet portion of the stop extends forward to provide support to a processed area of the workpiece.
the setup of the machine for shaping milling operation
you Should follow the manufacturer’s instructions for your specific transfer of universal machine in the mode of profile-milling operations, but the fundamental points set out below. Because of profile-milling unit has a common Desk with the circular saw, remove the blade guard and longitudinal focus, and the saw blade to clean beneath the surface of the table. Lift the spindle of the corresponding wheel or lever, and install the cutterhead, following the manufacturer’s instructions. Set the fence and stop, ensure that no interference-free operation of the cutters and turn on the machine.
the Cutting tools used in moulding machines, machine heads and knives
Almost all shaped milling ( moulding machines) the machine is supplied with cutting unit (cutter head) in which are mounted a pair of cutters (yoga). The head has a generally cylindrical shape, as the square blocks are now considered unsafe. There is a huge selection of different cutting bodies for these machines that meet international standards.
In a cylindrical block with a diameter of about 100 mm holes to install two identical knives. The wedge-shaped clamp is fixed with bolts or screws and securely holds each knife in its slot. Through the hole in each knife passes a stud or screw, which provide a strictly predetermined position of the knife and provide additional reliability of its fastening. In addition to a huge selection of ready-made profile cutters you can buy blanks knives that are sharpened at the discretion of the master. To edit the knife, use a whetstone with oil-wetting, but as soon as they have become quite worn, give a pair of knives for re-sharpening specialized workshops in order to keep them balanced.
flight of the knife, ie the distance by which it protrudes from the head is critical, therefore, strictly follow the instructions of the manufacturer affixed to the cutters or given to them in the sale. The departure of the knife must be restricted to prevent a sudden kickback of the workpiece or even the output of the knife down as a result of attempts to remove too much material in one pass. The form itself is also often imposes restrictions on the maximum depth of cut. Alternatively, before the knives can be mounted limiters.
the Monolithic head
If the unit-holder and the knives are made as a single unit, these heads have industrial qualities. These heads have three or four cutting edges that handle the surface at a high purity grade. Monolithic heads are longer than conventional holders with replaceable blades, but are much more expensive. Cutters for slotting Cutters for grooves reminiscent of disk blade circular saws. Some models must be mounted directly on the spindle, others are fixed in a special slot cylindrical heads. Swinging paintings Can be purchased swinging leaf of small diameters for sample of grooves of a width from 3 to 16 mm.
the Work performed on the machine
the make a relief decorative elements
shaped milling mode, the blades rotate at such a high speed that automatically provides a high purity surface treatment. However, at least try to set the workpiece so that the cutting ran along the fibers.
Installing the head, adjust the spindle so as to process the workpiece from below. In this position, the workpiece itself will play the role of additional protection, covering the rotating knives. In addition, even with a small jerk of the workpiece during processing she will not suffer from excessive penetration of the knife into the material. Twist the end of the part in the knife standing head, set focus to the required depth of cut. (Before processing the real part, you should first make a test pass on scrap wood.)
Install each half of the stop, so that there is only minimal clearance for the knives. Lower the upper clamping stress on the workpiece and lock it. Thus between the stop and the workpiece gap should not be, but the workpiece must be able to move under focus. Side clamps set similarly. Check that the head can rotate without interference, and turn on the machine. Press the workpiece to the stop and apply evenly on the cutter body. Continuing the flow, finish it with the pusher.
the Processing short blocks
it is Dangerous to handle the detail. which can securely hold with two hands for the two ends on either side of the gap to head into the fence of the machine. So first process the long workpiece (not trimmed to length) and then cut it to size.
the Processing narrow workpieces
you Can perform a decorative element on a Board, and then cut from it, the piece of the desired width. Or you can process the workpiece from both sides, and then cut it in half at the center.
the decorative treatment of end edges
To complete a decorative element on the end edge set up the machine as normal but remove the side hold-down stop. Adjust the top clamp to ensure a tight contact of the workpiece with a work Desk. Fix the workpiece on the sliding table for cross processing universal machine.
to prevent delamination of wood at the end of the rotating knives between the workpiece and the stop of the movable table, clamp a piece of waste material. Scrap should be flush with the end face of the workpiece. Blank and scrap are handled together.
the Cutting elements compounds
With the appropriate knives in shaped milling mode, you can cut short the spikes and the tool joint. However, the special set of cutters and pads for making connections to the castle is expensive and may not be economically viable taking into account the most probable volume of use in the home workshop.
the Treatment of curved edges
in order to give relief to the curved edge of the shaped workpiece in milling mode, it is necessary to replace the installed fence and the emphasis on circular, or annular, focused pressure. The workpiece is fed free manually, but it requires a certain skill not to crash too deeply into the material, which can lead to severe and abrupt impact. If you do not have this skill, you advice and a couple of lessons from a professional before independent work will be quite a reasonable precaution.
the Source: the Bible works on wood / A. Jackson, D. day; lane. from English. Y. E. Suslov.- Moscow: AST: Kladez, 2015. — 320 p. [ill.] — (Master Golden hands).