In modern conditions of the market the cost of products should be kept to a minimum. Ideal is zero waste, which is provided by the most more income. This is most clearly realized in the woodworking industry.
there is almost nothing lost. Waste produced from building materials such as wooden particle Board (chipboard), plywood, glued laminated beams, boards, etc.
For reliable splice between pieces of boards and planks used this connection, which is called Shipov. In addition, this type of connection is used in the manufacture of boxes, cartons and containers for products, as well as in joinery.
mainly for processing on milling and tenoning machines. Their equipment are tenoning cutters. It is advisable to understand what is this mill?
What is a tenoning cutter
Tenoning cutter is the tool that is designed for making tongue and groove joints. There are two types, disc and end. The first species is distributed more often than the second. In turn, the disk can be teams, that is, consisting of several mills.
Disk tenoning cutter is a toothed wheel which is mounted directly in the spindle. On the cylindrical surface of the wheel is made teeth. As a rule, on the one mill there are four or more tooth.
Cutters can be brazed, detachable. They have a form of plates. The profile cutter are usually in the form of a pyramid, cone or rectangle, depending on the material strength requirements of the connection.
Groove for chip removal follows the profile obtained by the finger joints of the. The step of the spike may be different.
these cutters are fixed on the spindle, mounted on both sides. This allows to reduce the radial runout, which in turn has a positive effect on this handling option, as the purity of the surface.
Assembly on one spindle of the several cutters so that the teeth form a helix, allows for a more gradual milling and relieves pressure from the machine. This improves the quality of treatment and eliminates the chipping of the edges.
Cutters made of high speed steel R6M5, and sometimes from the carbides. The cutter body is made from tool steel. To improve the quality of processing materials wood of coniferous species on cutting edges can be applied a special coating.
For workpieces under the spikes may also be used, although much less common, end mills. May be both teams whole. Both types of cutters have a cutting portion and a shank. Species considered further.
All end mills of this type are made from high speed steel.
Where you use the tenoning cutters
This tool for our use in woodworking, joinery and furniture production. A manufacturer of laminated boards, boards, boxes, boxes.
Size spikes depending on the industry and type of product may be different. In the construction of houses used spike with a depth of 30 mm, in furniture manufacturing so-called middle spike with a depth of 10 — 15 mm. Profile products are processed under mini-spikes (5 mm) through which the connection is more durable. This is due to more contact area.
Disc cutters suitable for machining of materials such as wood and its derivatives. End mills that have solid performance, used for the manufacture of special spines of the type «dovetail» in aluminium profiles.
Varieties tenoning cutters
depending on the design of the profile and running of a thorn is useful to distinguish several types of cutters. This disc cutter with removable or brazed cutters, with shoulders end mills for machining tenons, including the profile type «dovetail».
Disc cutters with brazed cutters
This type of cutter is the most common. It inserts mounted in the cutter body. Usually they are three in a row. The number of teeth can be from 4 to 6.
To accelerate the process of cutting these cutters are installed in several pieces on one spindle. Its disadvantage is the necessity of changing the whole mill after the development of the resource.
Disc cutters with removable cutters
the Above drawback are to eliminate tenoning disc cutter with exchangeable cutters. The plates are inserted in special grooves on the cylindrical side of the cutter and fixed fasteners.
in Addition, the mechanical mount allows you to develop a router bit with adjustable thickness, height and width. For example, known modifications that make the spikes with a height of 96 mm. To increase the strength of cutting edges have a diamond-like coating.
Disk cutter with shoulders
This tool is used for flush jointing. Its difference from other kinds of mills is that two sides of the cutting part is made the shoulder and a flat spike with a width of 5-10 mm. This size is chosen depending on the thickness of the workpiece.
They can be located in the cutter in two versions. In the first, the shoulder flat and spike are in the same plane, and the second in different. Here one of them has a size with full height studs and the other cut at the level of the depth of the notch.
This design allows you to make a hidden tongue and groove connection, which is important for the appearance of core products. Also this gives a smooth seam on the edge of the compound.
end mill for cutting tenons
This tool made a shallow recess. The cutting part of the cutter is made separate. Torque from the machine spindle to the cutters is transmitted through a cylindrical rod fixed at one end on it. On the other end is inserted a cutter, which is secured by a nut. In fact, the rod acts as a shank.
Spikes on the cutter arranged in a row, and the very cutting edge formed by the undercut straight grooves on it. As a rule, the height of the cutting portion does not exceed 50 – 60 mm.
This cutter is used for making finger joints in workpieces made of aluminum. Also suitable for wood and plywood.
Consists of cutting part and shank. In the cutting part are two symmetrically placed teeth, in which is soldered carbide plates. The cutters are made as inclined to the plane of the workpieces along the axis. The shank is cylindrical.
finger jointing is strongly dependent on the choice of tool and its proper preparation, as well as the positioning of the cutter and the table on which the workpiece is mounted. It is therefore necessary to constantly monitor the sharpening angles, the width of the step and check the perpendicularity of the planes. With the change of these parameters it is necessary to adjust the technological process of processing, in particular, feed speed and spindle rotation.
To obtain high-quality joints it is recommended to calibrate the workpiece and to check for defects.
Selection of tenoning cutters is dependent on the type of wood, allowances for finishing, and in accordance with the dimensions of the workpiece.