People who has dedicated his life to joinery, sometimes wonder how the professionals 20 years ago there were no such convenient equipment as mills. To date, mills have played an important role in the carpentry trade, they greatly simplify the work.< / span>
Early craftsmen had to perform similar types of work on a stationary milling machine. Manual machine as it appeared more convenient and more productive. Moreover it costs much less and does not require as much energy. < / span>
Cutter for a router allows the manufacture of numerous profiles with a smooth or rounded corners.
Cutter for such a machine can be made in very different styles and apply them respectively. Each mill has its own manual, the same router cannot be used for different kinds of wood.
Bit about the manual mill wood
Manual mill for wood is a convenient, powerful tool which has multiple edges. The cutting area is located on the cylindrical rod, usually 8 or 12 mm in diameter.
you Can change the diameter of the rod, using transitional elements. It should be noted that the cutter for a router used strictly as directed. Each tool is used specifically for one purpose. They quickly wear out and is practically not subject to sharpening.
since they do not have good resistance and the price is accordingly low and they can be changed more frequently than other cutters. Many people enjoy hand milling tool.
Classification of milling cutters
According to its characteristics and technological process of cutters for a router can be divided into two groups.
First help in the milling process in the reference guide.
the Second carry out the cutting process on the pivot bearing which can be installed in the upper part and at the base of the cutting. Often the bearing fails before the mill if its time to change, it is possible to extend the service of the mills. The main advantage of the bearing is able to perform milling on a curved path.
Kinds of mills
today, there are a large number of cutters and their parts for specific purposes. Mainly there are the following types of mills: edging, grooving, figurine. You can also find and combined models. Edge mills are often used for the implementation of decorative elements, even for rallying the blanks in the quarter.
to perform finger joints use slot cutters. Last help with door and furniture panels, also use them to perform baguette frames and decorative items.
What are hand-held routers?
the Current market charges for such types of cutters such as: top, edge and lamellar. Now we will look, than they differ.
Cutter made of tool steel bystrorezhuschej will satisfy all the requirements of the average wood processing and furniture group, but cutters with cutting edges made of tungsten carbide remain sharp longer, especially when cutting particle Board or material with a plastic laminate.
it is Possible to rule cutters made of tool steel on the stone with an oil wetting, yet not have to sharpen them with the help of a specialist. But be careful not to overheat these cutters — they may lose the tempering and become so soft that it will no longer hold. an edge and they need to be replaced.
Cutters with edges made of tungsten carbide to sharpen only in the workshops with specialized equipment. Designed for plunging operations it is essential that the surface of the bottom face of the cutter has been treated by the same standards as the side. The best type of mill for drilling and mortise processing is made with a special tip made of tungsten carbide, brazed solid solder on the tip of the cutter. Cutters without special cutting qualities of the tip must be introduced into the material only to the edge or edges.
the Following basic types of cutters can groove along and across the grain.
Cut grooves of rectangular cross section. Most of these mills have one or two cutting edges. Double edge is played by the processes the surface of the wood.
Cutter for vein grooves
For narrow grooves with a rounded bottom.
Cutter for round grooves
For wider grooves with a round bottom.
Cutter for dovetail
For the manufacture of parts of connections and frames dovetail. different configurations
the Cutters edge
edge cutters have guides with tips or tips that move along the edge of the product and perform the role of a template copier, rulers, etc. the Lugs are integral with the cutter to burn the wood due to friction. Under normal circumstances, this defect can be easily removed finely tuned plane. But industrial production is not economical, and so there are special cutters with tips, rotating on ball bearings that roll on the edge and do not cause thermal damage to the surface.
the Cutter for deep edge
For decorative edging or the manufacture of parts of the swivel , such as the folding cover of the table.
I Mill guide bearing – tip to cut veneer, plastic, flush with the edge of a Board, panel, etc.
Cutter for rebate
Machine cutting seam without the use of a guide line.
Cutter for rounding
Performs a simple rounded edge. At a deeper supply cuts the collar.
Cutter for sinewave edges
decorative S-shaped cross section of the edge.
Cutter for ribs
Similar to the previous one, but cuts two of its shoulder.
Cutter for mortise mode
When working in insert mode of a mill with diameter more than 9 mm make sure that the cutting edge goes all around the base.
Cutter for chamfers
Performing with KOs at an angle of 45 degrees. One mill makes different size chamfers based on the depth of the treatment.
Upper Fraser still and can take. This tool looks like an engine that is subjected to the settings, you can set the milling depth and to move the device up or down. The tool is designed for more advanced guys, as for replacement of the cutters you can’t stop the machine.
Submersible is a much better option, because the mechanism moves along the guide rail. With hard springs, a person can lower or raise the cutter without throwing detail. As a result, the work with this tool much easier and with such a device will handle even a beginner.
Edge mill is mainly used for chamfering or turning edges. Flake is used to make grooves, they connect parts of the product.
Can often be found even this characteristic of mills
currently, the market can meet a wide variety of types of cutters to choose from which is quite difficult. They differenciate depending on the diameter of the shank, the presence or absence of bearing, form, and in the end, according to a functional purpose.
With a larger diameter shank in the sale of very little. The most popular sizes of shanks 6, 8 and 12 millimeters. So better to take them, otherwise there will be problems with constant replacement of collets.
Even if you buy the set tool, you will immediately notice that essentially there are two types of mills.
Mill with the presence of a bearing are referred to as edging. They will apply when receiving the edges of the parts. When applying the edging cutters need to install the required treatment depth, and the bearing provide the desired movement of the cutter through the edge of the workpiece.
Cutter that has no bearing, you can work in any accessible location on the workpiece. Unfortunately, in this case, this cutter has the disadvantage that when it is used to control a hand router need using assistive devices.
Consider the types of tool for manual mill read more
edge milling cutter (preferably has special bearing) is used for edge processing of the workpiece. When a mill is working, the bearing moves across the surface of the workpiece, not allowing the mill to process material more than is necessary. Thus, the use of these mills is performed without using any additional devices.
Copy milling cutter (straight edge) — bearing moves along the template, receiving a copy of the part from billet.
Tigrana mill — it is used to create paneled overlays. Differ large dimensions and orientation of the cut.
Cone mill is used for cutting edges at a predetermined angle (for details, you need to look the characteristics of the cutter).
Molding mill , unlike the previous cutter has a bevelled knife to create a rounded shape. This mill during the processing of a material generates a profile which corresponds to 1/4 of the circle for rounding the edge of the edge.
Palestrina mill — similar profile of the two molding router bit with bearing, which are used at the same time. Used in the selection of the profile corresponding to 1/2 of a circle.
Mill Valtellina —is the opposite of molding cutters. It has a semicircular shape with a radius directed in the opposite direction. This cutter, like convex. It can be used in different combinations with molding cutters of the desired shape to ensure tightness.
Cutter seam— similar to a conventional direct copy milling cutter with cutting part is larger than the bearing. This tool on the mill is used to produce a ¼ circle or a rectangular groove.
the Cutter disk is similar to standing seam cutter looks like a disk with knives. It is a groove on the end face of the workpiece.
Mill microcephala — used for the manufacture of compounds of the workpieces with each other. Its application significantly increases the area when gluing surfaces by obtaining a large number of small grooves.
Cone edge mill has a cross-sectional shape of a rhombus.
slot milling Cutter— has a cutting edge with the side and end. Therefore, it can process grooves in different profile anywhere. As a rule, for their work required tyres, templates, stops and other accessories.
Types of slot milling cutters used for milling machine manual
video slot Cutter — that is used in the treatment of rectangular grooves of different depths.< / span>
Mill slot shaped, for example — that are used in the processing of grooves of different shapes. The Internet is an additional bearing.< / span>
the Cutter type, dovetail — used in the processing of a groove type «dovetail».< / span>
Mill slot construction used in the processing grooves of T-shaped form.< / span>
Mill slot Valtellina— used in the processing of grooves in cross-section having semi-circular grooves.< / span>
Cutter with V-shaped slot is used in the treatment of grooves with a triangular bottom
How to choose a manual mill
When you select a router the first thing you need to look at the output. Not powerful enough tool will not provide the ability to machine deep grooves or to remove all unnecessary at one time. The more powerful the device, the better it is to cope with the task.on
After a power tool you should pay attention to its accuracy. If you buy the tool for professional purposes, then a small deviation of the minor put an end to your work. Usually the precision of the tool can be found in the instructions.on
After the power and precision you need to look at equipment. Most inexpensive models are designed only for home use, they are, as a rule, a small number of cutters which also low quality. Professional tool includes an excellent cutter and very accurate device, of course, such a device will hit your pocket, but if you want a good instrument, you will have to spend.on
When choosing a machine, pay attention to «lift» it, in turn, is responsible for depth of cut and for stability and accuracy. Most models are equipped with standard controller, which has a single height position. In professional machines, two adjustments and they are called rude or full-time. With the help of them you can fix parts with the utmost precision.
For dressing the cutting edges cutters made of tool steel grind only the inner face machining the outer sides of the edges to change the diameter of the cutter.< / span>
Before the weakening of the wrench the locking nut collet is necessary to fix the spindle connected to the motor. On most routers this is achieved by pressing the spindle lock. On some machines, you need to either use a second wrench or a pin, is inserted into the hole on the spindle to lock.
depending on model to change the cutter machine can be mounted on the desktop in an inverted position or, if it’s easier to remove the engine cover from the base. In any case, first unplug the power. If the cutter jammed — bit. free its neat rocking from side to side, be careful not to cut yourself on the sharp cutting edge.< / span>
Before installing the cutter, make sure the collet is free from sawdust and dust. Installing the cutter, wrench tighten the lock nut collet when locked spindle.< / span>
of Course, to tell everything in one article about all types of cutters, but here is a basic list with characteristics. I would be happy if the article will be useful for You.< / span>